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Periodontal Disease, Causes and Treatment.

Many different names have been commonly used to describe periodontal disease including gum disease, periodontitis or gingivitis.

  • Gingivitis is a very early stage of periodontal disease, reversible bacterial condition that is characterized by changes in the color, contour and consistency of gams.
  • Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease – results in some extent permanent tissue destruction characterized by pocket formation, gum recession, resorption of bone etc

Periodontal disease affects nearly 75 percent of adults in the United States and is the major cause of adult tooth loss. Several research studies have associated gum disease with other chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis is particularly prevalent in smokers. Some individuals might also be genetically predisposed to developing this disease.

Closer look at Periodontal Disease:

Periodontal disease, as a bacterial infection destroys gum tissues around the teeth and supporting bone. It is the result of a complex interaction between the bacterial plaque biofilm that accumulates on tooth surfaces and the body’s efforts to fight this infection.  It results in some extent permanent tissue destruction.

Primary Causes of Gum Disease:

  • Presence of Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal pathogens.
  • Body reaction to bacteria known as the host response to bacterial infection that is responsible for fighting disease.

Microorganisms present in the plaque biofilm stimulate an inflammatory response in the body. The body responds by mobilizing defensive cells and releasing a series of chemicals causing the tissue destruction. Thus, the body’s immune response to infection is both protective and destructive.

This inflammation if left untreated may progresses from gingival infection into destruction of the supporting structures. Not everyone who exhibits gingivitis will develop periodontal disease. Combination of additional factors (described below) play significant role in determining why some individuals are more susceptible to periodontal disease than others.

Additional contributing factors such as local factors and systemic conditions play a role in determining increase individual’s risk and susceptibility to periodontal disease:

  • Local contributing factors: oral conditions such as presence of tartar deposit or faulty restorations, clenching, grinding, open contacts etc.
  • Systemic conditions: tobacco use, diabetes, osteoporosis, hormone alteration, stress, medications, genetic influences, AIDS.

Today, the treatment of periodontal disease is directed at managing the bacterial, local and systemic factors.

Treatment of Periodontal Disease.

At our office periodontal diseases are effectively treated through Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy (NSPT)—sometimes called phase I or initial therapy.

Part of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy is Scaling and Root Planning (SRP) commonly known as “deep cleaning”- which is mechanical removal of soft and hard deposit and pathogens from above and below your gumline.

This treatment is usually performed with conjunction with diode laser and locally delivered chemotherapeutic agents (Arestin). Effectiveness of chronic periodontal disease treatment may be increased by the combined approach to therapy.

Nonsurgical periodontal treatment procedures include also:

  • Customized self-care instructions. The patient is educated about the role of bacterial plaque in periodontal disease and in plaque control techniques.
  • Correction of systemic and local risk factors. Treatment may involve referral to a physician for management of systemic disease or other risk factors.

Periodontal maintenance (recall appointments) should be scheduled as frequently as needed to assist the patient in controlling periodontal disease.

Patients respond differently to treatments. Most patients will respond to thorough deep cleaning but some will not. Those patients as well patients with aggressive periodontal disease are referred to periodonist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment and prevention of periodontal disease.

For our patients’ convenience and to help us provide the finest care available, we have teamed with Dr. John Micaletti who is a top expert in his periodontal field.

Dr.  Micaletti performs procedures to help keep the supporting structures of your teeth such as: soft tissue and bone grafting, guided tissue regeneration, ridge augmentation, aesthetic gum contouring, pockets depth reduction, soft tissue graft, root surface debridement. He also performs dental implant surgery and cosmetic periodontal procedures to help improve a smile. Dr. John Micaletti works closely with Dr. Kakos to manage our patients’ oral health.

Call our Arlington Heights General and Cosmetic dental office at 847-758-0100 for your complimentary consultation with leading Arlington Hts. dentists Dr. James Kakos and Dr. John Micaletti.

We offer expert care in General Dentistry, Cosmetic Dentistry, Dental Implants, Periodontal Care/Surgery, Oral Surgery and Endodontics for discerning families in Arlington Heights and Chicago Northwest Suburbs Area.